A Simple Plan: Coffee

A Guide to Coffee Roasting To be able to produce coffee, it starts with green coffee beans, soft spongy beans that smell like grass, which are thoroughly dried and later roasted and brewed to come up with an aromatic, flavorful drink. Roasting coffee brings out the aroma and unique flavor of coffee which is locked inside the green coffee beans, as the heating process allows the transformation of the chemical and physical properties of the green coffee beans to produce coffee. Non-roasted coffee beans contain levels of amino acids, protein, sugars and caffeine, a stimulant which is linked with the central nervous system, but when roasted, a Maillard reaction takes place, which is a chemical reaction between amino acids and sugars take place, and, thereby, resulting into a browned, roasted beans with a distinctive flavor. Roasting coffee is a mastery of having the ability to know when the beans are roasted to give that aroma and flavor and not burnt. Coffee roasters know when is the right roasting time to achieve the kind of coffee that can come out and, basically, there are four categories – light, medium, medium-dark, and dark. All categories give that aromatic smell but the flavor of each differs.
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Coffee roasters know when the coffee beans are roasted into which category based on the sound it produces during roasting and at specific temperatures, such that at 196 degrees Centigrade the first crack sound is produced, marking the beginning of a light roast coffee, and at 224 degrees Centigrade, the second crack is sounded.
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Light roasts coffee are light brown in color and characteristic of having no presence of oil on the surface because they have not been roasted long enough for the oils to come out. The following commercial names of this light roast coffee are: Light City, Half City, and Cinnamon Coffee. Roasting further the light roast coffee can produce what is known as medium roast coffee, which is of medium brown, has a stronger flavor than light roast coffee and, still, non-oily. City Coffee, American Coffee, and Breakfast Coffee are examples of names which refer to medium roast coffee. The characteristics of medium dark roast coffee are rich, dark color, slightly oily, and having a bittersweet aftertaste. Medium dark roast coffee is also referred to as Full City coffee. The following characteristics are found in dark roast coffee: shiny due to the oil that comes out during roasting, has a bitter taste, less acidity and slightly dark to charred color. They are in popular demand than the other categories, such that they come in different names: High, Continental, New Orleans, European, Espresso, Viennese, Italian, and French.